RFID Systems and Frequency Bands: Features, Read Range, Data Storage, and Security

RFID Systems and Their Frequency Bands

RFID systems are often categorized by their operating frequency band. Different frequencies allow for different read ranges, data transfer speeds and sensitivity to interference.

LF 134.2 is the most mature and widespread RFID frequency. Typically LF tags are battery powered and have a short read distance, but have the advantage of being less sensitive to liquids or metals.

Read Range

The read range for RFID tags varies depending on the type of tag, the type of reader and the RFID frequency. The higher the frequency, the greater the data transfer rate and the longer the read range. But, as with any radio wave technology, electromagnetic interference in the environment or from other RFID tags and readers can reduce the effective read range.

SkyRFID offers a complete line of 433 MHz fixed and handheld RFID readers, tags (ATEX Certified) and antennas for a wide variety of Industrial, Marine, Mining, Vehicle, Warehouse and Personnel tracking and locating applications. Our passive UHF Gen 2 readers and tags have a proven 1 – 2 meter read range when mounted on metal surfaces.

Ultra high frequencies offer the highest data transfer rates and longest read ranges. But they can also be the most sensitive to interference, such as from liquids or metals. That’s why it is important to choose the right RFID frequency for your application.

Data Storage

RF RFID systems use radio waves to interrogate and communicate data. They operate on a variety of frequencies, including LF, HF and UHF. Each frequency band has different characteristics and benefits.

Using a specialized chip, an RFID tag can be made very small. Hitachi, for example, makes the world’s smallest RFID chips. They’re 0.05 mm x 0.05 mm and can store 38-digit numbers in 128-bit read only memory (ROM).

RFID tags can be hidden, even embedded in an item or animal. This feature has raised concerns about privacy and security. For example, an athlete’s RFID tag could be scanned without their permission during a race.

To address these concerns, the RFID industry has developed standards that restrict the reading of personal information and limit who can access it. RFID tags also have reserved memory that can be locked by the manufacturer to prevent unauthorized reading of sensitive information. This memory stores an access and kill password, which are 32 bits long.


Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a wireless technology that uses radio waves to identify objects. This technology has a variety of applications, from tracking goods in supply chains to enabling contactless payment systems. However, it also raises security concerns because criminals can use it to steal private information.

There are several different types of RFID attacks. Some of them are more serious than others. The most common type is the impersonation attack, in which the attacker intercepts information shared between legitimate readers and tags by eavesdropping or spoofing. This information is then used to gain access to the system.

Another attack involves gaining access to the keys that are stored on the RFID chip. This can be done using a device such as the Tastic RFID Thief, which is an HID MaxiProx reader with an Arduino board, an LCD screen to display scanned cards and an SD card reader that writes all scanned data to a text file.

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